(える) The normal word for obtain. Often used with permission, not just physical things.   $$$
(える) Usually used with hunting – the predator obtains prey. Also sometimes used about sports victories.   LIT
する(かくとくする) To obtain. Very similar to 獲る(える)but 獲得 has the connotation of “obtain with great effort”, or “FINALLY obtain.” 獲る is more like, obtain something easy or small.
める(おさめる) Can be used to mean “receive money” or “receive a victory”, but usually means “To load things in an organized manner.” – cargo containers, for example.  What the hell?!?
げる(とげる) To complete a mission. usually やり遂げる:to finish your homework or project – used about really difficult things. The verb form of 完全.