girl, woman, female

(じょせい) Female – a biological term
(おんなのひと) Woman – a social term, unlike the biological term 女性.
(じょう) Girl. Has the implication of an eligible single daughter of a rich family. お嬢さん。 A flattering word used when picking up girls. Up to 20 years old, but if you’re 70 you can use it to a single 40-year-old woman.
(おとめ) A  12-19 years old girl. Emphasis is on purity or virginity.
(おんなのこ) A girl, 11-19ish, doesn’t matter if she is a virgin.
(じょし) PREFIX used about women from first grade through college. Used to refer to female students as a group: “女子 line up on the left side of the class, 男子 (danshi) line up on the right side.” You wouldn’t say, “She’s a 女子.”